Tips & Checklists


  • Many data processing programs can handle Excel (.XLSX) or CSV files (.csv), that is why this format is often specified as a storage option and can also be imported as a file. Depending on a program, to ensure the ‘correct’ data format, you may need to make conversion settings during the data import (for example, when importing Excel/CSV files into R).
  • Harmonization of Research Data:


  • Is the transformation really necessary?
  • What is the old data format and what is the new format?
  • What software requirements do I need for both the transformation and the use of a new format?
  • Can I perform a conversion to a new format without information loss? If not, is the conversion worthwhile considering the price of information loss?